Intergenerational fairness: What is it? Does it matter?

Migration: a liberal challengeTom Papworth with Adam Corlett
December 2014

Intergenerational fairness is in vogue. It is discussed in Sunday morning TV political debates. Senior politicians write books about it. It has even spawned its own think tank. Yet the use of the term in popular debate is imprecise, ill-defined and confused. Too often, discussions fail to distinguish between lifetime consumption smoothing and intergenerational predation. More worryingly, the debate evinces a lack of clarity about what is meant by “intergenerational” and “fairness”.

This report sets outs a theoretical framework upon which to base future explorations of intergenerational fairness in particular policy areas. As such, it seeks to define what intergenerational fairness is – and, crucially, what it is not – and asks whether it should be our main cause of concern.

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Access and equity: positioning alternative providers in higher education provision

Migration: a liberal challengeStephen Lee
November 2014

Alternative providers (APs) play an increasingly important role in widening access to higher education, promoting innovation in programme design and delivery, and enhancing student choice.

Yet there is a continuing perception among APs that they suffer from the lack of a “level playing field” in the way public and private institutions are regulated, inhibiting their capacity to operate effectively in the higher education market.

This report calls on government to implement a common regulatory framework for all higher education institutions in England. The proposed framework of regulation would include a commitment to parity of treatment in regulation and institutional review. There would also be a stronger focus on quality assurance and effective collaboration through accreditation and validation across different institutions.

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Select media coverage: The Guardian, Times Higher

A place of sanctuary? Creating a fair and efficient asylum system

Migration: a liberal challengeAlasdair Murray
November 2014

This paper shows how government can make the UK’s asylum system fairer and more efficient. It argues that the current system is anachronistic in that it was designed to manage a large influx of asylum seekers at the turn of the millennium. Asylum numbers have fallen sharply since then and, while the overall debate about migration has intensified, hostility towards those seeking sanctuary has mellowed somewhat. It is therefore an opportune time to reform some of the most draconian elements of the asylum process without undermining public confidence.

Drawing on sector expertise and the author’s own analysis the paper makes 21 recommendations in the areas of institutional reform; detention; destitution; women and children; and the Common European Asylum System (CEAS). The intention behind each recommendation is to make the asylum system more responsive to today’s challenges – rather than those of previous decades.

‘A place of sanctuary? Creating a fair and efficient asylum system’ is the final publication of a three part series aimed at setting a liberal agenda in UK immigration policy. CentreForum previously published ‘Migration: a liberal challenge’ (January 2014) and ‘The business case for immigration reform’ (December 2013).

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Enhanced, sustainable devolution in a federal context

Toby Fenwick and Nikki Stickland
November 2014 

Queens Speech banner

Following the Scottish referendum in September 2014, Lord Smith of Kelvin was appointed chair of a new commission to take forward the devolution commitments on further powers for the Scottish Parliament. CentreForum's submission to the Smith Commission – whose website can be viewed here – makes detailed recommendations for a federal UK underpinned by an entrenched, codified and written constitution. Under CentreForum's proposals, the House of Lords would be replaced by fully elected upper house elected on a proportional basis. There would also be detailed procedures for future secession referenda, and the transfer of further policy and fiscal powers.

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Reading well by 11: modelling the potential for improvement

Migration: a liberal challengeChris Thoung
September 2014

The Read On. Get On. campaign has set an ambition that all 11 year olds in Britain should be reading well by 2025. Of the one in four children that are not currently reading well, a disproportionate number come from disadvantaged backgrounds. Disadvantaged children already face many challenges and not being able to read well further undermines their future chances of success. These pupils risk being left further and further behind. This can only accentuate the problem of low social mobility in the UK. The aim of the Read On. Get On. campaign is to promote reading as means to improve prospects for struggling children.

While a goal of all children reading well is clearly ambitious, the analysis in this CentreForum report commissioned by Save the Children shows that such a goal is achievable.

The report uses real pupil data for 2013 to model the effect of measures that are in the scope of existing public policy, from early years and through primary school. The research shows that there is substantial capacity for improvement already in the system. The Read On. Get On. campaign goal, of all children reading well by 2025, is within reach.

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Access the website of Read On. Get On.

Select media coverage: Daily Telegraph, The Times

Early years: valuable ends and effective means

Early yearsJanet Grauberg
July 2014

This report sets out ways that early years policy can narrow the opportunity gap between disadvantaged children and their peers.

The report urges government to be clearer about how progress towards narrowing the gap should be measured. It calls for greater focus on helping parents develop their children’s home learning environment. It also backs calls to impose higher qualification requirements on staff working with children from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Contributors to the report include respected children’s charity Barnardo’s, the Early Intervention Foundation, the Family and Childcare Trust, and academics from the University of Oxford and London School of Economics.

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Download background summary of policy interventions over the last 20 years (referenced on page 8 of the report)

Read the summary of the report launch on 16 July 2014

Select media coverage: Press Association, Public Finance

Promoting effective competition in UK defence procurement

Scottish independenceToby Fenwick
July 2014

Using the UK’s maritime patrol requirements as a case study, this interim report sets out the criteria that government should use to run a competitive defence procurement process without compromising the UK’s security.

The report expresses concern over suggestions that government could purchase American P-8 jets for maritime patrol at a projected cost of more than £160 million each – a figure it says cannot be tested on value for money grounds in the absence of competition.

It recommends that an open competition be held in line with Ministry of Defence (MoD) policy, with a robust assessment of through life affordability, concurrency requirements and UK job implications.

Additionally, the report calls for detailed consideration of whether the UK can integrate the civilian and military maritime patrol requirements which are currently split across several departments, agencies and the devolved assemblies. It explores the type of service model that could provide the best value for money if such integration took place.

The final report of this ongoing research project is expected in autumn 2014.

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Mental Health Commission: Final Report

The pursuit of happinessCentreForum Mental Health Commission
July 2014

Chaired by former minister for mental health, Paul Burstow MP, the CentreForum Mental Health Commission concludes its 12 month study on the state of wellbeing in England by identifying five key priorities between now and 2020.

The Commission's final report titled 'The pursuit of happiness' calls on policymakers to:

• Establish the mental wellbeing of the nation or the “pursuit of happiness” as a clear and measurable goal of government.
• Roll out a National Wellbeing Programme to promote mutual support, self-care and recovery, and reduce the crippling stigma that too often goes hand in hand with mental ill health.
• Prioritise investment in the mental health of children and young people right from conception.
• Make places of work mental health friendly with government leading the way as an employer.
• Better equip primary care to identify and treat mental health problems, closing the treatment gap that leaves one in four of the adult population needlessly suffering from depression and anxiety and 1-2% experiencing a severe mental illness such as schizophrenia.

The report also calls for parity of funding for mental health which currently receives 13% of NHS spend in England but accounts for 23% of demand. It is estimated that £13 billion is overspent every year on dealing with the physical health consequences of this unmet need.

Download the final report

Download call for evidence summary of key findings

Access the media release

Select media coverage: BBC Radio 4 (You and Yours), IndependentThe Sun

Atlas of VariationAtlas of Variation

Accompanying the Commission's final report is the first ever mental health-specific Atlas of Variation.

The atlas focuses on unwarranted – or preventable – variations in the mental health and wellbeing of England's population, exposing huge differences in people's circumstances and access to services.

One of the most concerning findings is that people with serious mental illnesses have significantly higher rates of premature mortality. But the atlas tells us much more than that.

Here are some examples.

Social determinants of poor mental health and wellbeing

• Children living in Tower Hamlets are 16 times more likely to grow up in poverty than children living in the Isles of Scilly.
• Teenagers living in Blackpool are six times more likely to become pregnant that teenagers living in Rutland.
• Pupils living in Liverpool are four times more likely to persistently absent from primary school compared to pupils living in Rutland.
• Young people living in Middlesbrough are five times more likely to not be in education, employment or training than young people living in Harrow. 

Self-reported wellbeing and prevalence of mental health problems

• People who live in South Tyneside are three times more likely to be unhappy with their lives compared to people living in Cheshire East.
• People living in Middlesbrough are three times more likely to have a long term mental health problems than people living in Harrow. 
• If you have a mental health problem and live in Brighton and Hove, you are five times more likely to access NHS adult or elderly mental health services than similar people living in Shropshire.
• If you live in Middlesbrough, you are seven times more likely to need to go into hospital for an acute condition that can normally be managed in the community, compared to people living in Hackney.
• If you have a serious mental illness and live in Newcastle upon Tyne, you are four times more likely to die prematurely than if you have a serious mental health problem but lived in the Isle of Wight. 

Download the Atlas of Variation

Select media coverage: Mail Online, Sunday Times

Regional challenges: a collaborative approach to improving education

Regional challengesAnna Claeys, James Kempton and Chris Paterson
July 2014

A little more than a decade ago, pupil outcomes in London were worse than anywhere else in the country. Today they are the best. The school improvement initiative London Challenge has been integral to this transformation.

'Regional challenges: a collaborative approach to improving education' draws on lessons from London Challenge and nine emerging challenge initiatives around the country to explore how regional challenges could best be implemented today.

The report warns that "straightforwardly copying" London challenge is unlikely to generate the same positive results. It says that initiatives must be tailored to a specific place and context.

It also argues that regional challenges today will require a degree of top down support if they are to operate at sufficient scale to have maximum impact and therefore calls on government to provide structured organisational and financial help.

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Read a summary of the launch.

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Select media coverage: BBC NewsGuardian

Minister of State for Schools David Laws MP said: "I warmly welcome CentreForum's report on regional challenges. All our children and young people deserve a high quality education, irrespective of where in the country they live. It is vital that we learn from the successes of initiatives such as London Challenge, so that all areas can work in partnership with other schools and organisations to address underperformance."

Shadow Secretary of State for Education Tristram Hunt MP said: "This is an excellent report - the success of the London Challenge programme at turning round the capital's schools, delivering excellence and high expectations for all learners, and lifting the life chances of disadvantaged children is one the great achievements of the last Labour government. The challenge now, as this report highlights, is to build on that and encourage local collaboration, partnership and challenge across the rest of England. The Labour party has a clear answer - a local Director of School Standards - which we believe will help spread this model and tackle underperformance wherever it lies. We welcome this powerful contribution to an increasingly crucial debate."

Chair of the Education Select Committee Graham Stuart MP said: "The precise causes of the 'London Effect' are complex. But the challenge model is an interesting and important one and this report sets out a strategy to use it to deliver success in other parts of the country. In particular, it grasps the key point that initiatives need to be in place to ensure experienced school leaders are available to share their expertise in the areas where it is needed most."

London Challenge Adviser now London Leadership Strategy, Professor David Woods said: "London Challenge has shown that with ambition, aspiration and a clear focus on raising standards and closing attainment gaps, backed by committed leadership at all levels, an education system can be transformed. Other regions can build on this to mobilise their intellectual, social and organisational capital to produce excellent educational outcomes."

Founder and CEO of Teach First, Brett Wigdortz OBE: "The success of London schools proves that the achievement of young people from low-income backgrounds does not have to be limited by where they grow up. However, understanding the lessons of London is only one part of the puzzle for how we respond to the changing face of educational inequality, particularly considering the unique challenges faced in rural and coastal areas many miles from the capital. We must recognise that wide ranging solutions across society are crucial, and that there is still much more to be done if we want to see long term change and a fair education for all children across the country. Bringing high quality teachers into the profession is fundamental to addressing the educational achievement gap. We were proud to see over 1,400 new Teach First recruits start their training last week, ahead of teaching in schools where the need is greatest from September. We also look forward to supporting similar initiatives to the London Challenge, including the Wales Challenge and Somerset Challenge".

Turbo charging volunteering: co-production and public service reform

Turbo charging volunteeringDavid Boyle
May 2014

Written by the government’s independent reviewer of public services David Boyle, this report sets out ways that ‘co-production’ of services can be applied more widely in health, housing, social care and other contexts.

Examples of co-production already in practice include citizen justice panels, co-operative nurseries as well as time banks, where people offer services to members and can choose services they would like in return.

The report says that there are clear social benefits from producing services in this way. It argues that service users, their friends and families, are able to build a much broader range of activities and gain the respect that goes with being “equal partners”.

In addition, the report finds that there are significant savings to be realised through co-production. Research has identified that it could cut NHS costs by at least 7% (£4.4 billion) a year and potentially up to a fifth.

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